Information about Framing
Framing or the light frame construction as they are commonly
referred to, employs minimal structural materials in achieving
a wide variety of architectural styles. This feature enables
builders to enclose large areas with minimal costs. Framing
has become a predominant construction methodology with the
use of standardized dimensional lumber in various parts of
the world, mostly in North America and Australia.
Framing makes use of wood or rectangular steel
tubes as main raw materials. However, some residential construction
may make use of both. Wood pieces are allied with nails or
screws while the steel pieces use screws for connection. Linear
structural members use softwood such as pine, fir and spruce.
Recent research and experimentation has evolved in the use
of pre-cut modular aluminum frames, thereby, reducing the
on-site construction costs.
Framing is a building technique based around structural members
called studs to provide a stable frame. The exterior and interior
wall coverings are attached to these studs and are covered
by a roof-comprising horizontal ceiling joists and sloping
rafters that together form a truss. Joists are horizontal
supporting members made of steel, wood or concrete and run
from wall to wall, wall to beam or beam to beam.
These joists support the ceiling, floor, or
roof. Trusses are triangular units with ends connected at
joints, built using straight slender members. Various sheathing
materials to provide weather resistance then cover all of
these structures. Earlier carpenters used various forms of
diagonal bracing to provide strength to the framed structures.
This practice is replaced by the use of sound rigid panels,
which then form a part of or complete wall sections.
of Framing and Description
Three common framing styles are Post and Beam method, Balloon
Framing, and Platform framing. Post and Beam methods use heavy
timber to create framed structures which are then joined together
with mortise and tenon joint, wherein the end of one member
is inserted into the hole cut in the other member.
These days obsolete Post and Beam method is
used only in barn construction. Balloon framing deploys the
use of long continuous studs that are extended from bottom
edge of the window or the floor. These are called sill up
to the eave line or edge of the roof. Marking of the height
of the windowsills, headers and the next floor height onto
the studs with a story pole are required.
In 1832, George Washington Snow first constructed
a warehouse in Chicago using the balloon framing technique.
Balloon framing did not require highly skilled carpenters
and hence proved to be cheaper and commonly used form of framing
technique in early nineties. Continuous structures used in
balloon farming prove hazardous during fire by providing a
path from floor to floor.
to this, the technique has been outlawed in many areas and
restricted its use to light gauge steel-stud constructions.
Platform framing replaced the two earlier methodologies. It
is now widely used in constructing houses, small apartment
buildings, and some commercial building. The main difference
between the two commonly applied technique lies at the floor
lines. Balloon framing uses continuous studs from one floor
to the next, whereas in case of Platform framing the platform-framed
wall is independent for each floor.
Framing and Structure
Like the human body, a house has a skeleton that gives it
support, shape and a framework for outer coverings.
A house's skeleton is called the frame. Though some new homes
utilize steel framing, most houses are made of wooden beams,
floor joists, walls studs, roof rafters and related components.
insure the structure's strength, these parts are sized and
connected in accord with building codes that are based on
basic load engineering principles.
important to know which parts are critical to a house's structure
so that you don't compromise its strength when remodeling
or doing work that involves cutting into framing members.